Adult, Adolescent, and Childhood ADHD
Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a persistent pattern of inattention and/or hyperactivity-impulsivity that significantly interferes with the functioning or development of an individual. Individuals with ADHD often experience reduced academic and occupational performance/attainment, social rejection (3-10x more common), accidental/major injury, develop conduct/antisocial personality disorder, experience substance abuse and incarceration, depressive/anxiety disorders(1), and have a higher rate of suicides as a cause of death compared to the general population(2). Sixty (60%) percent of children diagnosed with ADHD continue to experience clinically elevated symptoms of ADHD as adults. Medications that treat the core symptoms of ADHD have the common side effects of: High Blood Pressure/Hypertension, Tachycardia, Abdominal Pain, Chronic Difficulty Sleeping, Nausea, Headache, Loss of Appetite, Nervousness, Over Excitement, Increased Anger, False Sense of well-being(3) and questionable long-term efficacy(4).
Neurofeedback is a non-invasive, neurological treatment that decreases the core symptoms of ADHD(5), Neurofeedback is approved by the American Academy of Pediatrics as a Level 1 or "best support" treatment of ADHD(6). Research supports neurofeedback as being as effective as stimulant medication in the treatment of ADHD without serious adverse side effects(7). In fact, studies report maintained ADHD symptom reduction and continued neurological improvement 3, 6, and 24 months after the neurofeedback treatment was completed(8).
(1) Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th Ed.,(2013) American Psychiatric Association Washington, DC.
(2) Center for Disease Control and Prevention;
(4) Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry (2009).
(5) Journal of Neurotherapy (1995, 2000) http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1300/J184v01n01_07#.UqX0EVXTm00; http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1300/J184v04n01_02#.UqXzNlXTm00;
(6) American Academy of Pediatrics report: Evidence-based Child and Adolescent Psychosocial Interventions, (2012);
(7) Neurotherapeutics (2012);
(8) Clinical EEG and Neuroscience (2009); The International Journal of Bio-electrogram (2008); Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback (2002)